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“It is widely documented that exposure to hazardous drugs, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, poses a significant health risk to all healthcare workers involved in their preparation and administration.The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (2015) recommend the use of totally enclosed systems where reasonably practicable to control exposure to cytotoxic drugs. However, this could be extrapolated as best practice in handling all hazardous drugs, and potentially extended to all injectable medicines.”


Simons, A. and Toland, S. (2015) Closed systems for drug delivery: a necessity, not an option. British Journal of Nursing. 24(Sup14), p.S20–S22.

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