Maintenance antisepsis in reducing the rate of late-onset central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection

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We aimed to analyze the effectiveness of maintenance antisepsis at the CVC insertion site in reducing the CRBSI risk through comparing the use of 0.05% chlorhexidine to 1% chlorhexidine” Kikuchi et al (2019).

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Bundled measures have been recommended to reduce the risk of central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection. However, the importance of each procedure involved in CVC insertion/management for preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) has not been thoroughly assessed. We aimed to analyze the effectiveness of maintenance antisepsis at the CVC insertion site in reducing the CRBSI risk through comparing the use of 0.05% chlorhexidine to 1% chlorhexidine.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the South Miyagi Medical Center, Japan, 372 patients with a CVC who had undergone antisepsis maintenance using 0.05% chlorhexidine swabs 12 months prior to implementing 1% chlorhexidine swabs, and 344 patients at 12 months post-implementation of 1% chlorhexidine swabs, were followed prospectively for the development of CRBSI and signs of infection, and their data compared.

RESULTS: Post-implementation of the 1% chlorhexidine swabs, the CRBSI rate decreased from 3.64/1000 catheter-days to 1.77/1000 catheter-days. The risk of CRBSI decreased to 0.465 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.216-1.001). Furthermore, the risk of CRBSI ≥20 days after CVC insertion decreased to 0.200 (95% CI: 0.049-0.867); however, we found no difference between 0.05% and 1% chlorhexidine use within 19 days of CVC insertion. The increased number of patients with insertion site tenderness after implementing 1% chlorhexidine indicated a possible adverse effect of chlorhexidine.

CONCLUSION: Maintenance antisepsis with 1% chlorhexidine decreased the risk of developing CRBSI ≥20 days after CVC insertion, indicating the effectiveness of antisepsis with 1% chlorhexidine. Our data highlight the importance of maintenance antisepsis in reducing the rate of late-phase CRBSI.

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Reference:

Kikuchi, M., Sato, T., Okada, S., Abe, N., Sato, A. and Suzuki, Y. (2019) Maintenance antisepsis in reducing the rate of late-onset central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: A comparison of 0.05% and 1% chlorhexidine. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. September 5th. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2019.08.007. .

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