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"The results of our study seem to confirm that IIC can lead to PFE in a pediatric population and show that the PFE after IIC can be important (up to score 2 of Falzi)" Castiglioni et al (2022).
Intraosseous access associated fat embolism

Abstract:

In our center, we performed the autopsy of a child who died from drowning and presented, at autopsy, a major pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). A cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed, including infusion by intraosseous catheter (IIC). No other traumatic lesions and diseases classically related to a risk of PFE were detected. According to some animal studies, we considered the IIC as the only possible cause for PFE. However, we could not find literature to confirm this hypothesis in humans, especially in a pediatric population. To verify the occurrence of PFE after IIC in a pediatric population, we retrospectively selected 20 cases of pediatric deaths autopsied in our center, in which a CPR was performed, without bone fractures or other possible causes of PFE: 13 cases with IIC (group A) and 7 cases without IIC (group B). Several exclusion criteria were considered. The histology slides of the pulmonary tissue were stained by Oil Red O. PFE was classified according to the Falzi scoring system. In group A, 8 cases showed PFE: 4 cases with a score 1 of Falzi and 4 cases with a score 2 of Falzi. In group B, no case showed PFE. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The results of our study seem to confirm that IIC can lead to PFE in a pediatric population and show that the PFE after IIC can be important (up to score 2 of Falzi). To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first specifically focused on the occurrence of PFE after IIC in a pediatric population by using autoptic data.

Reference:

Castiglioni C, Carminati A, Fracasso T. Fat embolism after intraosseous catheters in pediatric forensic autopsies. Int J Legal Med. 2022 Jun 30. doi: 10.1007/s00414-022-02848-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35771256.