Enhanced infection control interventions reduce neonatal CRBSI

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Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) cause high neonatal mortality and are related to inadequate aseptic technique during the care and maintenance of a catheter. The incidence of CR-BSI among neonates in Hung Vuong Hospital was higher than that of other neonatal care centres in Vietnam” Phan et al (2020).

Abstract:

Background: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) cause high neonatal mortality and are related to inadequate aseptic technique during the care and maintenance of a catheter. The incidence of CR-BSI among neonates in Hung Vuong Hospital was higher than that of other neonatal care centres in Vietnam.

Methods: An 18-month pre- and post-intervention study was conducted over three 6-month periods to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention for CR-BSI and to identify risk factors associated with CR-BSI. During the intervention period, we trained all nurses in the Department of Neonatology on BSI preventive practices, provided auditing and feedback about aseptic technique during catheter care and maintenance, and reorganised preparation of total parenteral nutrition. All neonates with intravenous catheter insertion ≥48 h in the pre- and post-intervention period were enrolled. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood samples were collected for cultures. We used Poisson regression to calculate rate ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for CR-BSI incidence rates and logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with CR-BSI.

Results: Of 2225 neonates enrolled, 1027 were enrolled in the pre-intervention period, of which 53 CR-BSI cases occurred in 8399 catheter-days, and 1198 were enrolled in the post-intervention period, of which 32 CR-BSI cases occurred in 8324 catheter-days. Incidence rates of CR-BSI significantly decreased after the intervention (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.39–0.94). Days of hospitalisation, episodes of non-catheter–related hospital-acquired infections, and the proportion of deaths significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.01). The CR-BSI was associated with days of intravenous catheter (odds ratio  = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.08), use of endotracheal intubation (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.27–4.06), and intravenous injection (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 1.14–63.4). Conclusions: The interventions significantly decreased the incidence rate of CR-BSI. Regular refresher training and auditing and feedback about aseptic technique during care and maintenance of catheters are critical to reducing CR-BSI.

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Reference:

Phan, H.T., Vo, T.H., Tran, H.T.T., Huynh, H.T.N., Nguyen, H.T.T. and Nguyen, T.V. (2020) Enhanced infection control interventions reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections in the neonatal department of Hung Vuong Hospital, Vietnam, 2011–2012: a pre- and post-intervention study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. 9, 9. January 7th. doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0669-1.

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