DIVA in paediatric intensive care
Introduction: Multiple attempts during peripheral cannulation can have major consequences for patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals, therefore we set out to determine the extent of this problem in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
Objectives: The main aim was to describe peripheral venous catheter (PVC) and peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) cannulation in children in the PICU. Secondary objectives were to determine the success rate of the first cannulation attempt, to quantify patients with difficult venous access (DVA), and to explore the association between DVA and sociodemographic, technique and nursing-related characteristics.
Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Consecutive sampling was used to recruit patients aged 0-18 years admitted to the PICU who required peripheral venous cannulation. An ad hoc questionnaire was used for this purpose, including the presence of DVA as an independent variable.
Results: A total of 163 venous cannulations were reported. A total of 55.8% (91) were performed in patients under 1 year of age. Of these, 38.7% (63) were successful on the first attempt and 36.8% (60) had DVA. When there was DVA, 85% (51) of patients had complications, median time to cannulation by short CVP was 30 minutes [15-53] and 2 or more nurses were required on 80% (48) of occasions.
Conclusions: We found a low success rate at first attempt and a high proportion of DVA. More nurses and time were employed during cannulation and complications increased if the patient had DVA. A statistically significant association was found between DVA and age, weight, poor perfusion, veins that were neither visible nor palpable, DIVA score ≥ 4, history of difficult intravenous access, complications, number of nurses and time spent.
de la Vieja-Soriano M, Blanco-Daza M, Macip-Belmonte S, Dominguez-Muñoz M, López-Sánchez E, Pérez-Pérez E. Difficult intravenous access in a paediatric intensive care unit. Enferm Intensiva (Engl Ed). 2022 May 10:S2529-9840(22)00021-0. doi: 10.1016/j.enfie.2021.03.006. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35562260.