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"Recent research suggests new ways to accurately identify children at high risk of CADVT, effectively prevent CADVT, and optimize CADVT treatment" Johnson and Faustino (2022).

Central venous catheter-associated DVT

Abstract:

Purpose of review: Central venous catheter (CVC) placement and ICU admission are the two most important risk factors for pediatric deep vein thrombosis. The optimal prevention and treatment strategies for CVC-associated deep vein thrombosis (CADVT) are unclear, but recently, seminal studies have been published. This review aims to summarize the recent literature on CADVT in critically ill children.

Recent findings: Recent publications focused on three themes: risk factors, prevention, and treatment of CADVT. Newly identified risk factors for CADVT relate to Virchow’s triad of hemostasis, blood vessel injury, and hypercoagulability. New risk prediction models have moderately good accuracy in predicting CADVT. Though previous data on pharmacologic CADVT prophylaxis was equivocal, recent studies indicate that low-molecular-weight heparin may be effective in preventing CADVT, particularly in critically ill children. Finally, new studies suggest that direct oral anticoagulants and shorter treatment times are noninferior to traditional agents and treatment durations in the treatment of CADVT.

Summary: Recent research suggests new ways to accurately identify children at high risk of CADVT, effectively prevent CADVT, and optimize CADVT treatment. Future research should focus on understanding the pathobiology of CADVT formation, prevention, and treatment in critically ill children.


Reference:

Johnson RR, Faustino EVS. Central venous catheter-associated deep vein thrombosis in critically ill pediatric patients: risk factors, prevention, and treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Jun 1;34(3):273-278. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001128. PMID: 35634701.