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"The catheter tip is more accurately positioned in the distal superior vena cava using topographical landmarks than radiological landmarks" Kim et al (2022).
Left subclavian catheter tip position

Abstract:

Left subclavian venous access increases the risk of vascular damage and thrombosis based on the catheter course and location of the catheter tip. We investigated the accuracy of tip positioning with conventional landmarks using transesophageal echocardiography. The carina as a radiological landmark and the right third intercostal space as a topographical landmark were selected for tip positioning within the target zone, defined as 2 cm above and 1 cm below the right atrial junction. A total of 120 participants were randomized into two groups. The catheter insertion depth was determined as 1.5 cm more than the distance between the venous insertion point and the carina via the right first intercostal space in the radiological group, and between the venous insertion point and the right third intercostal space via the right first intercostal space in the topographical group. The determined insertion depth and actual distance to the right atrial junction of the radiological and topographical groups were 19.5 cm and 20.5 cm, and 19.8 cm and 20.4 cm, respectively. Acceptable positioning was more frequent in the topographical group (96.4% vs. 85.7%; p = 0.047). The catheter tip is more accurately positioned in the distal superior vena cava using topographical landmarks than radiological landmarks.

Reference:

Kim SK, Ahn JH, Lee YK, Hwang BY, Lee MK, Kim IS. Accuracy of Catheter Positioning during Left Subclavian Venous Access: A Randomized Comparison between Radiological and Topographical Landmarks. J Clin Med. 2022 Jun 27;11(13):3692. doi: 10.3390/jcm11133692. PMID: 35806977.