Predicting ultrasound-guided peripheral IV catheter failure
Objectives: Ultrasound-guided (US) peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) have a high failure rate with many failing prior to completion of therapy. Risk factors associated with catheter failure are poorly delineated. This study aimed to assess risk factors related to catheter failure including patient, procedure, catheter, and vein characteristics to further elucidate which variables may impact catheter longevity.
Methods: This was a secondary analysis using an existing trial dataset that primarily compared survival of two catheters: a standard long (SL) and an ultra-long (UL) US PIVC. Adult emergency room patients with difficult intravenous access at a tertiary care suburban academic center were study participants. Kaplan-Meier was employed to estimate the median catheter survival time. Cox regression univariable and multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the primary outcome of catheter survival.
Results: Among 257 subjects, 63% of PIVCs survived until completion of therapy. In a multivariable Cox regression model, length of catheter in vein >2.75 cm (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.90, p = 0.01) was associated with improved survival. First stick success decreased the risk of catheter failure (aHR 0.68, 95% CI 0.44-1.06, p = 0.09) but was not statistically significant. Factors associated with the increased risk of catheter failure included: depth of vein >1.2 cm (aHR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.66, p = 0.03) and PIVC placement in right extremity (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.07-2.51, p = 0.02).
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that catheter length in vein (>2.75 cm) was associated with improved US PIVC survival highlighting the value of longer catheters in US PIVC survival. Choosing targets in the non-dominant extremity with shallower depths (⩽1.2 cm) may also increase catheter survival.
Bahl A, Millard M, Hijazi M, Chen NW. Predictors of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous catheter failure: A secondary analysis of existing trial data. J Vasc Access. 2022 Sep 15:11297298221122118. doi: 10.1177/11297298221122118. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36113061.