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Mendes, M.L., Barretti, P., Silva, T.N. and Ponce, D. (2015) Approach to thrombotic occlusion related to long-term catheters of hemodialysis patients: a narrative review. Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia. 37(2), p.221-227.


Currently, permanent catheters (pCVC) are becoming an alternative vascular access for long-stay patients in whom arteriovenous access cannot be made. Occlusion is a commun mechanical complication related to pCVC, leading to inadequate dialysis dose and frequent changes of local catheter location, which can cause exclusion of vascular sites. The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review of treatment of pCVC thrombotic occlusion in HD patients. The treatment of CVCP thrombosis typically consists on the saline infusion or administration of thrombolytics such as tissue plasminogen activated, reteplase and urokinase. There are few studies on the use of alteplase in pCVC clogged in oncology area and in dialysis population, and they all report success with the use of thrombolytic therapy ranging from 80-95% of cases, using 1mg/ml. Due to the high cost of alteplase, studies have suggested that cryopreservation and fractionated alteplase dose have made its use financially viable.

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