Study of 755 deep and superficial upper-extremity vein thrombosis

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"The aim is to describe the clinical and ultrasound features, UE-VT-related diseases, and the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and associated deaths" Ploton et al (2020).

Abstract:

Upper extremity vein thrombosis (UE-VT) are more and more frequent pathologies and yet little studied. The aim is to describe the clinical and ultrasound features, UE-VT-related diseases, and the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and associated deaths.All UE-VT patients diagnosed by Doppler-ultrasound in Nantes University Hospital, from January 2015 to December 2017, were included retrospectively. UE-VT suspicion patterns, clinical features, UE-VT topography, and prevalence of PE and death were analyzed.Seven hundred and fifty-five UE-VT were analyzed, including 427 deep thrombosis (UE-DVT) and 328 superficial thrombosis (UE-SVT). In 86.2% (n = 651) UE-VT were related to endovascular devices. Among these thrombosis, one third is in connection with a PICC LINE and one quarter with a peripheral venous line. Forty nine percent (n = 370) of the patients had solid neoplasia or hematological malignancies. An inflammatory or systemic infectious context was found in 40.8% (n = 308) of the cases. The most frequently observed clinical sign at the UE-VT diagnosis was edema (28.6%). Among the UE-SVT it was the presence of an indurated cord (33.2%) and among the UE-DVT the indication of the Doppler-ultrasound was mainly a suspicion of infection on endovascular device (35.1%). In 10.6% (n = 80) of the cases the UE-VT were asymptomatic. The most frequently thrombosed veins were brachial basilic veins (16.7% of all thrombosed segments) followed by jugular (13%) and subclavian (12.3%) veins; 61.3% (n = 463) of UE-VT were in the right upper extremity; 63.3% (n = 478) UE-VT were occlusive. The occurrence of PE is 4% and the death rate is 10.2%, mainly related to the severe comorbidities of patients with UE-VT.UE-VT occurs in particular clinical contexts (hematological malignancies, solid cancers, systemic infections) and in the majority of endovascular devices (86.2%). The occurrence of PE is low.

Reference:

Ploton, G., Pistorius, M.A., Raimbeau, A., Denis Le Seve, J., Bergère, G., Ngohou, C., Goueffic, Y., Artifoni, M., Durant, C., Gautier, G., Connault, J. and Espitia, O. (2020) A STROBE cohort study of 755 deep and superficial upper-extremity vein thrombosis. Medicine. 99(6), p.e18996. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018996.

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