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Review of vancomycin serum concentration levels – Full Text

"These results emphasize the need of appropriate loading dose and regular monitoring to improve vancomycin efficacy and avoid renal toxicity" Perin et al (2020).
Abstract:

The present study assessed the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who had a vancomycin serum concentration between 20 and 25 mg/L after 24-48 h of intravenous vancomycin administration. From 2016 to 2018, adult ICU patients with vancomycin continuous infusion (CI) for any indication were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a first-available vancomycin serum concentration between 20-25 mg/L at 24 h (D2) or 48 h (D3). Of 3894 admitted ICU patients, 179 were included. A median loading dose of 15.6 (interquartile range (IQR) = (12.5-20.8) mg/kg) was given in 151/179 patients (84%). The median daily doses of vancomycin infusion for D1 and D2 were 2000 [(IQR (1600-2000)) and 2000 (IQR (2000-2500)) mg/d], respectively. The median duration of treatment was 4 (2-7) days. At D2 or D3, the median value of first serum vancomycin concentration was 19.8 (IQR (16.0-25.1)) with serum vancomycin concentration between 20-25 mg/L reported in 43 patients (24%). Time spent in the ICU before vancomycin initiation was the only risk factor of non-therapeutic concentration at D2 or D3. Acute kidney injury occurred significantly more when vancomycin concentration was supra therapeutic at D2 or D3. At D28, 44 (26%) patients had died. These results emphasize the need of appropriate loading dose and regular monitoring to improve vancomycin efficacy and avoid renal toxicity.

Reference:

Perin N, Roger C, Marin G, Molinari N, Evrard A, Lavigne JP, Barbar S, Claret PG, Boutin C, Muller L, Lipman J, Lefrant JY, Jaber S, Roberts JA. Vancomycin Serum Concentration after 48 h of Administration: A 3-Years Survey in an Intensive Care Unit. Antibiotics (Basel). 2020 Nov 10;9(11):E793. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9110793. PMID: 33182613.