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Reduction of bacterial colonization at PICC exit site

"We evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for non-inferiority in controlling bacterial colonization of the exit-site of Peripherally-Inserted Central Catheters (PICC)" Gilardi et al (2020).

Abstract:

Introduction: A serious complication associated with Central Venous Access Device (CVAD) is infection because of bacterial contamination, either by the extra-luminal or by the intra-luminal route. We evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for non-inferiority in controlling bacterial colonization of the exit-site of Peripherally-Inserted Central Catheters (PICC).

Methods: After PICC placement, a skin swab of the exit site was taken and cultured. In group A the exit site was sealed with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue, while in group B a chlorhexidine-releasing sponge dressing was applied. A second skin culture was taken at day 7.

Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled in each group. In 42 patients the second skin culture was not performed because of 20 patients were lost at follow-up or deceased and in 22 patients the dressing needed to be changed early, because of local bleeding (13 cases, in group B) or because of dressing detachment (four in group A and five in group B). The microbiological study was completed in 36 patients in group A and 24 in group B. No microorganisms were isolated in any patient.

Conclusions: Both strategies were effective in controlling bacterial colonization. Glue was effective in reducing local bleeding, and it was more cost-effective than sponge dressing. During the first week, when local bleeding and bacterial colonization must be prevented, glue might be more appropriate than chlorhexidine-releasing dressing; after the first week chlorhexidine-releasing dressing might be preferable, considering that the safety of glue application on the skin for prolonged periods is still questionable.

Reference:

Gilardi E, Piano A, Chellini P, et al. Reduction of bacterial colonization at the exit site of peripherally inserted central catheters: A comparison between chlorhexidine-releasing sponge dressings and cyano-acrylate . J Vasc Access. 2020;1129729820954743. doi:10.1177/1129729820954743