Introduction: A serious complication associated with Central Venous Access Device (CVAD) is infection because of bacterial contamination, either by the extra-luminal or by the intra-luminal route. We evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the cost-effectiveness of two strategies for non-inferiority in controlling bacterial colonization of the exit-site of Peripherally-Inserted Central Catheters (PICC).
Methods: After PICC placement, a skin swab of the exit site was taken and cultured. In group A the exit site was sealed with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue, while in group B a chlorhexidine-releasing sponge dressing was applied. A second skin culture was taken at day 7.
Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled in each group. In 42 patients the second skin culture was not performed because of 20 patients were lost at follow-up or deceased and in 22 patients the dressing needed to be changed early, because of local bleeding (13 cases, in group B) or because of dressing detachment (four in group A and five in group B). The microbiological study was completed in 36 patients in group A and 24 in group B. No microorganisms were isolated in any patient.
Conclusions: Both strategies were effective in controlling bacterial colonization. Glue was effective in reducing local bleeding, and it was more cost-effective than sponge dressing. During the first week, when local bleeding and bacterial colonization must be prevented, glue might be more appropriate than chlorhexidine-releasing dressing; after the first week chlorhexidine-releasing dressing might be preferable, considering that the safety of glue application on the skin for prolonged periods is still questionable.
Gilardi E, Piano A, Chellini P, et al. Reduction of bacterial colonization at the exit site of peripherally inserted central catheters: A comparison between chlorhexidine-releasing sponge dressings and cyano-acrylate . J Vasc Access. 2020;1129729820954743. doi:10.1177/1129729820954743