Introduction: Rapid infusion systems (RIS) are used to warm and rapidly infuse crystalloids and blood products. Current guidelines do not approve of platelet transfusion through a RIS, but data supporting these guidelines are scarce. Our hypothesis was that an infusion of whole blood through a RIS would degrade platelet quantity, impede viscoelastic clot strength, and inhibit platelet aggregation response to adenosine diphosphate pathway (ADP) activation.
Methods Ten iterations of a simulated scenario of transfusing whole blood via a single brand and make of RIS (Belmont Fluid Management System 2000, Belmont Medical Technologies, Billerica, MA) were performed. Units of whole blood, which were two to nine days old, were leukoreduced prestorage. Blood was used to prime the RIS and then warmed and infused at 100 mL/min into a reservoir. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after infusion. Samples were tested for platelet count, size, and viscoelastic clot strength using thromboelastographic and aggregation assays.
Results The study sample (n = 10) included platelets with an average age of 5.3 days. The infusion through the RIS had a detrimental effect on all the maximal amplitudes (MA) of viscoelastic testing: MA ADP (mean difference = -18.7 mm; 95% CI: -24.1 to -13.3, P = 0.004), MA rapid thromboelastography (MA rTEG) (mean difference = -6.0; 95% CI: -10.0 to -2.0, P = 0.008), MA TEG (mean difference = -7.1; 95% CI: -10.9 to -3.4, P = 0.004), mean platelet volume (MPV) (mean difference = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.1, P = 0.02), and platelet count (mean difference = -68.3 × 103/µL; 95% CI: -86.9 to -49.7, P = 0.004).
Conclusions Platelet quantity, viscoelastic clot strength, and platelet aggregation response to ADP each decline after infusion through a RIS. Further studies regarding microaggregates and platelet activation are required.Reference:
Sappenfield JW, White JD, Pelletier JPR, Loftus TJ, Mukhtar F, Vasilopoulos T, Bengali S, Gravenstein N, Keidan I. Effects of a Single Rapid Infusion System on Platelet Function in Stored Whole Blood: An Ex Vivo Study. Cureus. 2021 Jul 20;13(7):e16518. doi: 10.7759/cureus.16518. PMID: 34430129; PMCID: PMC8376140.