Prediction of nonelective neonatal central venous catheter removal

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Nonelective CVC removal (NER) is an inadequately studied outcome associated with increased morbidity, infant and family stress, and cost” Beard et al (2019).

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are essential to neonatal care but associated with significant morbidity. Nonelective CVC removal (NER) is an inadequately studied outcome associated with increased morbidity, infant and family stress, and cost. This study describes prevalence and predictors of NER in infants admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit and NER variation between peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), cutdown PICCs, and surgical CVCs.

METHODS: In this study, we include patient and catheter data for infants admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (2010-2015). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests for continuous, non-normally distributed continuous, and categorical variables, respectively. The association between NER due to complication and infant and catheter characteristics was assessed using generalized linear mixed models.

RESULTS: Patient and catheter characteristics vary significantly by catheter type. The overall rate of NER is 15% (17% PICCs, 13% cutdown PICCs, and 19% surgical CVCs). The most common indications for NER are catheter breakage, blood stream infection(BSI)/central line-associated blood stream infection(CLABSI), catheter malposition, mechanical obstruction, and extravasation. Birth weight, patient diagnosis, catheter dwell time, and concurrent catheters are associated with increased odds of NER.

CONCLUSIONS: Patient risk factors and potentially modifiable catheter characteristics, including catheter dwell time and concurrent catheters, are associated with increased NER. As NER is associated with a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes, we propose a quality improvement strategy to risk stratify patients and reduce exposure to high-risk, modifiable catheter characteristics.

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Reference:

Beard, L., Levek, C., Hwang, S. and Grover, T. (2019) Prediction of Nonelective Central Venous Catheter Removal in Medically Complex Neonates. Pediatric Quality & Safety. 4(4), p.e179. doi: 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000179. eCollection 2019 Jul-Aug.

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