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"Sonography examinations in the SVC had a longer duration than those in the IVC (p < 0.001). Sonography provides an accurate method for determining PCVC tip location in the SVC" Wang et al (2022).
Sonography PICC tip location in children

Abstract:

Malposition of percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVCs) in the superior vena cava (SVC) is common. We previously showed that real-time sonography was safer and faster than radiography in identifying PCVC tip location in the inferior vena cava (IVC). However, in preterm infants, determining PCVC tip location in the SVC is complicated by endotracheal or nasogastric tubes in situ and emphysematous lung conditions. We aimed to find an appropriate sonographic view by which to assess PCVC tip location in the SVC compared to the sonographic examination of PCVC in the IVC. Neonates (n = 50) with PCVCs in the SVC were enrolled and their data (gestational age, gender, birth weight, body weight at intervention, repositioning rate, and duration of tip assessment) were compared with retrospective data of 50 neonates with PCVCs in the IVC. The mean gestational age in the groups of IVC and SVC was 31.43 weeks and 32.16 weeks, respectively. The mean birth weight in the groups of IVC and SVC was 1642.18 g and 1792.00 g, respectively. Placement of an S12-4 ultrasound sector transducer to obtain clear parasternal views of the aorta allows visualization of PCVC tips in the SVC and near the cavoatrial junction. PCVC repositioning rates were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.092). Sonography examinations in the SVC had a longer duration than those in the IVC (p < 0.001). Sonography provides an accurate method for determining PCVC tip location in the SVC.

Reference:

Wang YS, Huang HC, Liu YC, Chen IL. Echocardiographic Determination of Percutaneous Central Venous Catheters in the Superior Vena Cava: A Prospective Cohort Study. Children (Basel). 2022 Apr 27;9(5):624. doi: 10.3390/children9050624. PMID: 35626801; PMCID: PMC9139769.