Background: The application of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in neonates has proven effective in avoiding repetitive insertions and excessive use of transfusion consumables. However, the frequent occurrence of PICC-associated complications deserves special attention, especially in extremely or very low birthweight (E/VLBW) infants, which in turn affects the quality of neonatal PICC practice. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of a 3-year clinical practice of neonatal PICCs in E/VLBW infants to understand the incidences of various catheter-related complications and their risk factors to help form an empirical summary and evidence-based guidance for the improvement of practice.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on a 3-year practice of neonatal PICCs in E/VLBW infants. Neonatal health records were collected, including demographic characteristics, PICC placement data, and treatment information.
Results: A total of 519 E/VLBW infants were included in this study. There were 77 cases of complications involving 72 infants with an overall incidence of 12.13%. The order of incidences of different complications from high to low was phlebitis (7.71%), malposition (3.66%), leakage (1.35%), pleural effusion (1.15%), central line-associated bloodstream infection (0.58%, 0.25/1,000d), and accidental removal (0.38%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the inserted vessel was an independent risk factor for PICC-associated complications (mainly phlebitis; p = 0.002). Neonatal PICCs inserted in the axillary vein were only one-tenth (p = 0.026) as likely to cause phlebitis as in the basilic vein, whereas when applied in the saphenous vein, neonatal PICCs were five times as likely to cause phlebitis (p = 0.000).
Conclusion: E/VLBW infants might be more inclined to develop PICC-associated phlebitis. Catheters inserted in the axillary or basilic vein are preferred if possible.Reference:
Wu Y, Yan J, Tang M, Hu Y, Wan X, Li X, Chen Q, Li X. A review of neonatal peripherally inserted central venous catheters in extremely or very low birthweight infants based on a 3-year clinical practice: Complication incidences and risk factors. Front Pediatr. 2022 Oct 31;10:987512. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.987512. PMID: 36389348; PMCID: PMC9659812.