PICC outcomes in burn patients
Aims: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are becoming common and effective in acute and critical care settings recently. Burn patients need special considerations because of restricted insertion sites, burn wounds, hyper coagulation, high infection rates and others. However, the safety of PICCs in burn patients are not well elucidated and no related protocol has been formed. This study aims to investigate the thrombosis and infections of PICCs in burn patients.
Methods: This was a single center retrospective study and a systematic review. All the burn patients with PICCs between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020 were included. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science was performed from inception to 4 June 2021 following PRISMA guidelines. Upper extremity vein thrombosis (UEVT) and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) were the main outcome.
Results: A total of 85 successful PICCs in 78 patients were included. Most patients were male (79.5%), adults(80.8%) and injured by flame(74.4%). The mean TBSA was 50.3% and 76.9% of patients had TBSA more than 30%. Most PICCs were punctured once (60.0%) and inserted less than 30 days after injury (80.0%) through basilar vein (70.6%). The overall line days were 2195 days and the mean line days was 25.8 ± 18.3 days. Six PICCs were complicated by UEVT (7.1%) in 21.2 ± 17.3 days after insertion. Patients with UEVT had significantly higher rate of bacteremia and later insertions than those without UEVT. One patient developed CLABSI and the CLABSI rate was 1.2% and 0.5 per 1000 line days. Six PICCs had catheter colonization. No significant risk factors were identified. Five articles involving 293 patients and 319 PICCs were ultimately evaluated in systematic review. The overall incidence of UEVT was 3.2% and CLABSI was 6.9% in burn populations.
Conclusion: PICCs in burn patients had acceptable incidence of UEVT and CLABSI with relative long line durations. A standardized PICC guideline for burn patients is required to further improve the feasibility and safety of PICCs.
Li N, Chen H, Jiang T, Liu T, Yuan B, Yuan Z, Luo G, Li H. Thrombosis and infections of peripherally inserted central catheters in burn patients: A 3-year retrospective study and a systematic review. Burns. 2021 Dec 24:S0305-4179(21)00363-6. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2021.12.008. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34980518.