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"Although PICC placement rates for acute osteomyelitis significantly decreased in the face of increased incidence of acute osteomyelitis in children, LOS and hospital costs for all hospitalizations remained stable" Shaikh et al (2021).

PICC for osteomyelitis treatment in children

Abstract:

Objectives: Although a growing body of evidence suggests that early transition to oral antimicrobial therapy is equally efficacious to prolonged intravenous antibiotics for treatment of acute pediatric osteomyelitis, little is known about the pediatric trends in peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements. Using a national database, we examined incidence rates of pediatric hospitalizations for acute osteomyelitis in the United States from 2007 through 2016, as well as the trends in PICC placement, length of stay (LOS), and cost associated with these hospitalizations.

Methods: This was a retrospective, serial cross-sectional study of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2007 through 2016. Patients ≤18 years of age with acute osteomyelitis were identified by using appropriate diagnostic codes. Outcomes measured included PICC placement rate, LOS, and inflation-adjusted hospitalization costs. Weighted analysis was reported, and a hierarchical regression model was used to analyze predictors.

Results: The annual incidence of acute osteomyelitis increased from 1.0 to 1.8 per 100 000 children from 2007 to 08 to 2015 to 16 (P < .0001), whereas PICC placement rates decreased from 58.8% to 5.9% (P < .0001). Overall, changes in LOS and inflation-adjusted hospital costs were not statistically significant. PICC placements and sepsis were important predictors of increased LOS and hospital costs.

Conclusions: Although PICC placement rates for acute osteomyelitis significantly decreased in the face of increased incidence of acute osteomyelitis in children, LOS and hospital costs for all hospitalizations remained stable. However, patients receiving PICC placements had longer LOS. Further studies are needed to explore the long-term outcomes of reduced PICC use.


Reference:

Shaikh N, Umscheid J, Rizvi S, Bhatt P, Vasudeva R, Yagnik P, Bhatt N, Donda K, Dapaah-Siakwan F. National Trends of Acute Osteomyelitis and Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Children. Hosp Pediatr. 2021 Jun 29:hpeds.2020-005794. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-005794. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34187789.