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"Difficulty in setting up PIVC was the greatest in infants and even greater than that in newborns" chu et al (2022).
Successful pediatric peripheral IV catheterization


Background: Peripheral intravenous catheterization (PIVC) is pivotal to pediatric medical care; however, it is a challenging technique for pediatricians, and the parameters affecting successful pediatric PIVC establishment have not been fully investigated.

Methods: This prospective observational study collected data from pediatric patients aged less than 18 years who required PIVC. The participants were categorized into five groups for subgroup analysis: newborn, infant, toddler, pre-school, and student (children and adolescent). Data on demography, biochemistry, and PIVC executors were examined to elucidate the most powerful factors affecting the success of PIVC.

Results: A total of 935 peripheral venous cannulations conducted within 1 year were studied. Age-subgroup analysis showed the highest failure rate (FR) of PIVC in the infant group (18.4%). No significant difference in BMI standard deviation score was noted among the groups (p-value = 0.430). Compared with those for the success group, more attempts, longer completion time, and more medical staff were needed for the failure group (all p-values < 0.05). A high serum procalcitonin level was correlated with an increased FR (p-value = 0.016). In addition, the success rate was positively associated with the seniority of the operators, except for the 3-year experienced R3 group (93.5%) showing a higher success rate than the 4-year experienced CR group (84.2%).

Conclusions: Difficulty in setting up PIVC was the greatest in infants and even greater than that in newborns. Even though seniority was a cardinal factor in successful PIVC, a high FR was still noted despite the lack of continuous and steady practice.


Chu CH, Liu CC, Lai CY, Chen YC, Tien CH, Hsieh KH, Lin CM. New dimension on potential factors of successful pediatric peripheral intravenous catheterization. Pediatr Neonatol. 2022 Aug 6:S1875-9572(22)00175-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2022.05.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35999154.