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"Difficulty in setting up PIVC was the greatest in infants and even greater than that in newborns" chu et al (2022).
Successful pediatric peripheral IV catheterization

Abstract:

Background: Peripheral intravenous catheterization (PIVC) is pivotal to pediatric medical care; however, it is a challenging technique for pediatricians, and the parameters affecting successful pediatric PIVC establishment have not been fully investigated.

Methods: This prospective observational study collected data from pediatric patients aged less than 18 years who required PIVC. The participants were categorized into five groups for subgroup analysis: newborn, infant, toddler, pre-school, and student (children and adolescent). Data on demography, biochemistry, and PIVC executors were examined to elucidate the most powerful factors affecting the success of PIVC.

Results: A total of 935 peripheral venous cannulations conducted within 1 year were studied. Age-subgroup analysis showed the highest failure rate (FR) of PIVC in the infant group (18.4%). No significant difference in BMI standard deviation score was noted among the groups (p-value = 0.430). Compared with those for the success group, more attempts, longer completion time, and more medical staff were needed for the failure group (all p-values < 0.05). A high serum procalcitonin level was correlated with an increased FR (p-value = 0.016). In addition, the success rate was positively associated with the seniority of the operators, except for the 3-year experienced R3 group (93.5%) showing a higher success rate than the 4-year experienced CR group (84.2%).

Conclusions: Difficulty in setting up PIVC was the greatest in infants and even greater than that in newborns. Even though seniority was a cardinal factor in successful PIVC, a high FR was still noted despite the lack of continuous and steady practice.

Reference:

Chu CH, Liu CC, Lai CY, Chen YC, Tien CH, Hsieh KH, Lin CM. New dimension on potential factors of successful pediatric peripheral intravenous catheterization. Pediatr Neonatol. 2022 Aug 6:S1875-9572(22)00175-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2022.05.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35999154.