Peripheral IV administration of 3% sodium chloride
Background: Administration of 3% sodium chloride through a peripheral venous catheter is associated with risk of infusion-related adverse events (IRAE) due to its high osmolarity. Given this concern and the paucity of data regarding these events, many hospitals have policies that require central line administration of 3% sodium chloride.
Objective: The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the incidence of IRAE associated with peripheral administration of 3% sodium chloride.
Methods: This analysis included patients who received 3% sodium chloride via a peripheral venous catheter between May 2017 and August 2019. The major endpoint of this analysis was the overall incidence of IRAE, defined as the documentation of infiltration or phlebitis. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors (e.g., age, infusion rate, infusion duration, peripheral venous catheter location, and needle gauge) for development of IRAE.
Results: A total of 706 administrations in 422 patients were included. Seventy-four (10.5%) administrations were associated with a documented event. Based on the Infusion Nurses grading scale for infiltration or phlebitis, 48% of the events in this analysis were grade 1 in severity. Duration of infusion of 3% sodium chloride was found to be associated with an increased odds of an IRAE (OR per 1 h 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.02) in the multivariable analysis. Age, infusion rate, peripheral venous catheter location, and needle gauge were not independently associated with an increased risk of an IRAE.
Conclusion: These data suggest that IRAE occurred more frequently when 3% sodium chloride was administered over a longer duration and the majority of events were mild with no permanent tissue injury. It may be reasonable to consider peripheral administration of 3% sodium chloride in the acute care setting for a short duration, although additional studies are needed to continue to evaluate its safety.
Deveau RF Jr, Marino KK, Crowley KE, McLaughlin KC, Culbreth SE. Safety of peripherally administered 3% hypertonic saline. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Nov 5;63:127-131. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.10.051. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36371934.