Peripheral IV administration of 23.4 percent sodium chloride
Background: Sodium chloride (NaCl) 23.4% solution has been shown to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) and reverse transtentorial herniation. A limitation of 23.4% NaCl is its high osmolarity (8008 mOsm/l) and the concern for tissue injury or necrosis following extravasation when administered via peripheral venous access. The use of this agent is therefore often limited to central venous or intraosseous routes of administration. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of administration of 23.4% NaCl via peripheral venous access compared with administration via central venous access.
Methods: We reviewed pharmacy records to identify all administrations of 23.4% NaCl at our institution between December 2017 and February 2020. Medical records were then reviewed to identify complications, such as extravasation, soft tissue injury or necrosis, hypotension (mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg), pulmonary edema, hemolysis, and osmotic demyelination. We also compared the change in physiological variables, such as ICP, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and heart rate, as well as laboratory values, such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, creatinine, and hemoglobin, following administration of 23.4% NaCl via the peripheral and central venous routes.
Results: We identified 299 administrations of 23.4% NaCl (242 central and 57 peripheral) in 141 patients during the study period. There was no documented occurrence of soft tissue injury or necrosis in any patient. One patient developed hypotension following central administration. Among the 38 patients with ICP monitoring at the time of drug administration, there was no significant difference in median ICP reduction (- 13 mm Hg vs. – 24 mm Hg , p = 0.21) or cerebral perfusion pressure augmentation (16 mm Hg vs. 15 mm Hg , p = 0.87) based on route of administration.
Conclusions: Peripheral venous administration of 23.4% NaCl is safe and achieves a reduction in ICP equivalent to that achieved by administration via central venous access.
Faiver L, Hensler D, Rush SC, Kashlan O, Williamson CA, Rajajee V. Safety and Efficacy of 23.4% Sodium Chloride Administered via Peripheral Venous Access for the Treatment of Cerebral Herniation and Intracranial Pressure Elevation. Neurocrit Care. 2021 Jun 25. doi: 10.1007/s12028-021-01248-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34173156.