Neonatal glucose infusion rate
Background: Most preterm infants require a continuous glucose infusion in the early postnatal period due to the interruption of the transplacental glucose supply after birth to promote better neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Aims: To investigate the glucose infusion rate (GIR) on parenteral nutrition (PN) in the first week of life administered in preterm infants and its effect on neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Methods: This study included 97 infants aged < 37 gestational weeks and weighed < 2500 g at birth. Infants recruited in this study were classified into 3 groups based on the GIR usage in parenteral nutrition as follows: GIR usage of 5- < 7 g/kg/day (Group I), GIR usage of 7-13 g/kg/day (Group II), and GIR usage of > 13-15 g/kg/day (Group III). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes were carried out to investigate whether the GIR usage in the three groups was associated with selected neonatal morbidities and mortality. Neonatal morbidities analyzed included respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, pulmonary hypertension, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia.
Result: Of 97 preterm infants included, 51.5% infants had a gestational age of 34- < 37 weeks, and 54.6% infants had a birth weight of 1500- < 2500 g. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the GIR usage of 5- < 7 g/kg/day was an independent variable that significantly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 4.000, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.384-11.565, P = 0.010) and reduced the risk of sepsis (AOR = 0.096, 95% CI = 0.012-0.757, P = 0.026). The GIR usage in all three groups did not increase the risk of mortality. For neonatal morbidity analyzed in this study, RDS (AOR = 5.404, 95%CI = 1.421-20.548, P = 0.013) was an independent risk factor of mortality.
Conclusion: The GIR usage of < 7 g/kg/day in PN in the first week of life administered to preterm infants was an independent variable in increasing hypoglycemia, but in contrast, reducing the risk of sepsis.
Angelika D, Etika R, Utomo MT, Mirha S, Handayani KD, Ugrasena IDG. The glucose infusion rate of parenteral nutrition in the first week of life in preterm infants: an observational study. Ital J Pediatr. 2021 Nov 4;47(1):219. doi: 10.1186/s13052-021-01165-7. PMID: 34736488.