BACKGROUND: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for invasive infections; however, hospitalizations to treat these infections are frequently complicated by against medical advice (AMA) discharges. This study compared outcomes among 1) PWID who completed a full course of inpatient intravenous (IV) antibiotics, 2) PWID who received a partial course of IV antibiotics but were not prescribed any antibiotics on AMA discharge, and 3) PWID who received a partial course of IV antibiotics and were prescribed oral antibiotics on AMA discharge.
METHODS: Retrospective, cohort study of PWID aged 18 years or older admitted to a tertiary referral center between 01/2016 and 07/2019, who received an Infectious Diseases consultation for an invasive bacterial or fungal infection.
RESULTS: 293 PWID were included in the study. 90-day all cause readmission rates were highest among PWID who did not receive oral antibiotic therapy on AMA discharge (n=46, 68.7%), compared with inpatient IV (n=43, 31.5%) and partial oral antibiotics (n=27, 32.5%). In a multivariate analysis, 90-day readmission risk was higher among PWID who did not receive oral antibiotic therapy on AMA discharge and not different among PWID prescribed oral antibiotic therapy on AMA discharge (aHR=0.99; 95% CI 0.62-1.62). Surgical source control (aHR=0.57; 95% CI 0.37 – 0.87) and addiction medicine consultation (aHR=0.57; 95% CI 0.38 – 0.86) were both associated with reduced readmissions.
CONCLUSIONS: Our single center study suggests access to oral antibiotic therapy for PWID who cannot complete prolonged inpatient IV antibiotic courses is beneficial.
Marks, L.R., Liang, S.Y., Muthulingam, D., Schwarz, E.S., Liss, D.B., Munigala, S., Warren, D.K. and Durkin, M.J. (2020) Evaluation of partial oral antibiotic treatment for persons who inject drugs and are hospitalized with invasive infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. April 2nd. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa365. (Epub ahead of print).