IV fluid administration to prevent contrast-associated AKI
Purpose of review: The known timing of contrast media exposure in patients identified as high-risk for contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) enables the use of strategies to prevent this complication of intravascular contrast media exposure. Although multiple preventive strategies have been proposed, periprocedural fluid administration remains as the primary preventive strategy. This is a critical review of the current evidence evaluating a variety of fluid administration strategies in CA-AKI.
Recent findings: Fluid administration strategies to prevent CA-AKI include comparisons of intravenous (i.v.) to no fluid administration, different fluid solutions, duration of fluid administration, oral hydration, left ventricular end diastolic-pressure guided fluid administration and forced diuresis techniques.
Summary: Despite an abundance of fluid administration trials, it is difficult to make definitive recommendations about preventive fluid administration strategies due to low scientific quality of published studies. The literature supports use of i.v. compared with no fluid administration, especially in high-risk patients undergoing intra-arterial contrast media exposure. Use of isotonic saline is recommended over 0.45% saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate. Logistical considerations support shortened over longer i.v. fluid administration strategies, despite an absence of evidence of equivalent efficacy. Current literature does not support oral hydration for high-risk patients. The use of tailored fluid administration in heart failure patients and forced diuresis with matching fluid administration are promising new fluid administration strategies.
Rudnick MR, Fay K, Wahba IM. Fluid administration strategies for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2022 Jul 15. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000815. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35851374.