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"The use of invasive devices is a risk factor for the occurrence of HAI caused by bacteria and fungi" Menezes et al (2021).

Invasive devices are risk factor for HAI


Background: Increased survival of preterm neonates who require hospitalization at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit has led to an increase in infections. This study aims to describe the temporal trend, risk factors, and outcome of healthcare-associated infections in a NICU of a high complexity hospital, with emphasis on the differences of incidence between bacterial and fungal infections.

Methods: The study was carried out from January 2013 to December 2016, with daily follow-up of the newborns by the National Healthcare Safety Network.

Results: The study included 881 newborns, of whom 214 had a bacterial infection, 19 had fungi infection, and 12 bacterial and fungal infections associated. The hospital infection rate was 12/1000 patient-days. SNAPPE>24, days of hospitalization and PICC days were independent risk factors for the development of fungal and bacterial infection, respectively, with statistical significance for bacterial and fungal infections. The mortality rate was 2.6 times higher in those who had fungal infection than in those who had a bacterial infection. The occurrence of invasive infections was higher in the years 2015 and 2016 and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts were more frequent, impacting morbidity and mortality.

Conclusions: The use of invasive devices is a risk factor for the occurrence of HAI caused by bacteria and fungi. The frequency of deaths was higher in the group of neonates with fungal infection. These results point to the importance of constant epidemiological surveillance and measures of effective control of infections in NICU.


Menezes RP, Melo SGO, Oliveira MB, Silva FF, Alves PGV, Bessa MAS, Silva NBS, Araújo LB, Penatti MPA, Pedroso RS, Abdallah VOS, Röder DVDB. Healthcare-associated infections in high-risk neonates: Temporal trends in a national surveillance system. Early Hum Dev. 2021 May 17;158:105394. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105394. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34051584.