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Intraosseous or peripheral IV access in pediatric cardiac arrest?

"The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the intravascular injection route on the return on spontaneous circulation" Recher et al (2021).

Abstract:

Objectives: Despite the evolving recommendations that favor the use of intraosseous access in pediatric resuscitation, the impact of vascular access type on survival in young children has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the intravascular injection route on the return on spontaneous circulation, survival to hospital admission (0 day), and 30 days or survival to hospital discharge, by comparing survival rates in young children having intraosseous and peripheral IV access. The second aim was to compare the rates of favorable neurologic outcome after 30 days or survival to hospital discharge.

Design: This was a multicenter retrospective comparative study between July 2011 and October 2018.

Setting: Based on the French cardiac arrest registry data.

Patients: All prepubescent (males < 12 yr old, females < 10 yr old) victims of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Interventions: Patients with adrenaline administration by intraosseous versus peripheral venous technique were compared, using propensity score matching.

Measurements and main results: The analysis included 603 prepubescent patients, 351 (58%) in the intraosseous group and 252 (42%) in the peripheral IV group. Intraosseous group patients were younger, lighter, with more medical cause for arrest. The intraosseous group had lower survival rates at 30 days or hospital discharge (n = 6; 1.7%) than the peripheral IV group (n = 12; 4.8%) (p = 0.030). After matching, 101 pairs of patients were created. No difference was observed on return of spontaneous circulation or 0-day survival rates (odds ratio = 1.000 [95% CI, 0.518-1.930]; odds ratio = 0.946 [95% CI, 0.492-1.817], respectively) and on 30 days or hospital discharge survival (n = 3 in both groups) (odds ratio = 1.000 [95% CI, 0.197-5.076]). Meaningful statistical evaluation of neurologic status among survivors was precluded by inadequate numbers.

Conclusions: The type of injection route (intraosseous or peripheral venous access) does not appear to have an impact on survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a prepubescent population, but limitations of propensity matching limit a definitive conclusion.

Reference:
Reference:

Recher M, Baert V, Escutnaire J, Le Bastard Q, Javaudin F, Hubert H, Leteurtre S. Intraosseous or Peripheral Intravenous Access in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest? Results From the French National Cardiac Arrest Registry. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021 Jan 11;Publish Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002659. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33433156.