Intracavitary electrocardiogram-guided PICC placement in premature infants

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The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intracavitary electrocardiogram (IC-ECG)-guided peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement and tip positioning in premature infants” Xiao et al (2019).

Abstract:

This pre-post intervention study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in two Chinese hospitals. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intracavitary electrocardiogram (IC-ECG)-guided peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement and tip positioning in premature infants. A total of 161 premature infants who required a PICC were enrolled and divided into two groups: pre-intervention group (n = 83) from October 2017 to July 2018 and post-intervention IC-ECG group (n = 78) from August 2018 to March 2019. Nurses were trained from May 2018 to July 2018. The reposition rate in the IC-ECG group and pre-interventions group was 3.85% and 19.28%, respectively (OR 5.970; 95% CI 1.666-21.395; p = 0.002). More infants achieved optimal tip position at the first attempt in the IC-ECG group than the pre-intervention group (93.59% vs 73.49%; OR 0.190; 95%CI 0.068-0.531; p = 0.001). The overall catheter-related complications in the pre-intervention group were 14.46% compared to 3.84% in the IC-ECG group (OR 2.962; 95%CI 1.013-8.661; p = 0.040). However, no significant differences were observed between the individual complication leakage, phlebitis and catheter-related blood stream infection.Conclusions: IC-ECG-guided peripherally inserted central catheter placement and tip positioning technology might decrease reposition rates, achieve more accurate tip positioning at the first attempt and might reduce catheter-related complications in premature infants. Further robust RCTs are needed to confirm the effectiveness of IC-ECG-guided PICC placement and tip positioning in neonates.What is Known:• Chest radiography is the gold standard for tip position confirmation of peripherally inserted central catheter placement.• Studies in adult patients have shown that electrocardiogram guidance in the placement of central venous catheters can be beneficial, while evidence in neonates is limited.What is New:• Intracavitary electrocardiogram-guided peripherally inserted central catheter placement might be superior to chest radiography in preterm infants.• Decreasing the repositioning rates and correct tip position of peripherally inserted central catheters might reduce catheter-related complications.

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Reference:

Xiao, A.Q., Sun, J., Zhu, L.H., Liao, Z.Y., Shen, P., Zhao, L.L. and Latour, J.M. (2019) Effectiveness of intracavitary electrocardiogram-guided peripherally inserted central catheter tip placement in premature infants: a multicentre pre-post intervention study. European Journal of Pediatrics. December 1st. doi: 10.1007/s00431-019-03524-3. .

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