“Here, we demonstrate that the evaluation of blood flow by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in the extravasation area predicts for the need of surgical intervention.” Haslik et al (2014).
Haslik, W., Pluschnig, U., Steger, G.G., Zielinski, C.C., Schrögendorfer, K.F., Nedomansky, J., Bartsch, R. and Mader, R.M. (2014) Indocyanine green video angiography predicts outcome of extravasation injuries. PLoS One. 9(8), e103649.
BACKGROUND: Extravasation of cytotoxic drugs is a serious complication of systemic cancer treatment. Still, a reliable method for early assessment of tissue damage and outcome prediction is missing. Here, we demonstrate that the evaluation of blood flow by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in the extravasation area predicts for the need of surgical intervention.
METHODS: Twenty-nine patients were evaluated by ICG angiography after extravasation of vesicant or highly irritant cytotoxic drugs administered by peripheral i.v. infusion. Tissue perfusion as assessed by this standardized method was correlated with clinical outcome.
RESULTS: The perfusion index at the site of extravasation differed significantly between patients with reversible tissue damage and thus healing under conservative management (N = 22) versus those who needed surgical intervention due to the development of necrosis (N = 7; P = 0.0001). Furthermore, in patients benefiting from conservative management, the perfusion index was significantly higher in the central extravasation area denoting hyperemia, when compared with the peripheral area (P = 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: In this patient cohort, ICG angiography as indicator of local perfusion within the extravasation area was of prognostic value for tissue damage. ICG angiography could thus be used for the early identification of patients at risk for irreversible tissue damage after extravasation of cytotoxic drugs.
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