Aim: Even though TIVADs have been implanted for a long time, immediate complications are still occurring. The aim of this work was to review different techniques of placing TIVAD implants to evaluate the aetiology of immediate complications.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The patient numbers, number of implanted devices, specialists involved, implant techniques, implant sites and immediate complication onsets were studied.
Results: Of the 1256 manuscripts reviewed, 36 were eligible for inclusion in the study, for a total of 17,388 patients with equivalent TIVAD implantation. A total of 2745 patients (15.8%) were treated with a surgical technique and 14,643 patients (84.2%) were treated with a percutaneous technique. Of the 2745 devices (15.8%) implanted by a surgical technique, 1721 devices (62.7%) were placed in the cephalic vein (CFV). Of the 14,643 implants (84.2%) placed with a percutaneous technique, 5784 devices (39.5%) were placed in the internal jugular vein (IJV), and 5321 devices (36.3%) were placed in the subclavian vein (SCV). The number of immediate complications in patients undergoing surgical techniques was 32 (1.2%) HMMs. In patients treated with a percutaneous technique, the number of total complications were 333 (2.8%): 71 PNX (0.5%), 2 HMT (0.01%), 175 accidental artery punctures AAP (1.2%) and 85 HMM (0.6%). No mortality was reported with either technique.
Conclusion: The percutaneous approach is currently the most commonly used technique to implant a TIVAD, but despite specialist’s best efforts, immediate complications are still occurring. Surgical cut-down, 40 years after the first implant, is still the only technique that can avoid all of the immediate complications that can be fatal.Reference:
Toro A, Schembari E, Fontana EG, Di Saverio S, Di Carlo I. Forty years after the first totally implantable venous access device (TIVAD) implant: the pure surgical cut-down technique only avoids immediate complications that can be fatal. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021 Jun 9. doi: 10.1007/s00423-021-02225-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34109472.