High-risk needlestick injuries and virus transmission

Evaluation of the follow-up monitoring after NSI with respect to early recognition of transmission of HIV, HCV and HBV as well as adherence and psychological burden of HCP” Safari et al (2019).

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Needlestick injuries (NSI) of healthcare personnel (HCP) are work-related accidents with a risk of transmission of blood-borne human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV). Along with preventive measures to avoid accidental NSI, preventing the risk and diagnosis of an infection from NSI are given a high priority. Thus, follow-up monitoring of NSI is of great interest.

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the follow-up monitoring after NSI with respect to early recognition of transmission of HIV, HCV and HBV as well as adherence and psychological burden of HCP.

METHODS: Clinical and serological investigations of the injured HCP including determining the individual risk of infection in the situation of NSI, analysis of accident protocols by the accident insurance consultant and use of a self-developed standardized questionnaire.

RESULTS: No virus transmissions from NSI were found during the observation period (23 March 2014 until 31 October 2017). A total of 112 NSI with infectious index patients (HIV 35.7%, HCV 54.5%, HBV 2.7%, coinfection 7.1%) and 3 incidents from unknown index patients were analyzed. Of the index patients six received the first diagnosis of a blood-borne infection (2 HCV infections, 4 HIV infections) after NSI. In nearly all incidents (98.3%) the HCP took measures to disinfect and flush the injury and 85.1% of the HCP exposed to HIV or unknown infection risk undertook postexposure prophylaxis (HIV-PEP) within 2 h and another 12.8% within 10 h. Follow-up examination was attended by 97.4% of the HCP, three quarters of the HCP felt concerned following NSI and 12.2% were very concerned.

CONCLUSION: Through adequate management and follow-up of NSI low transmission rates can be achieved after exposure to blood-borne viruses within the occupational environment.

You may also be interested in…





Reference:

Safari, N., Rabenau, H.F., Stephan, C., Wutzler, S., Marzi, I. and Wicker, S. (2019) High-risk needlestick injuries and virus transmission : A prospective observational study. Der Unfallchirurg. June 26th. doi: 10.1007/s00113-019-0655-3. . .

Safety IV catheter