Hemodialysis catheter lock solutions
Proper protection of vascular access after haemodialysis is one of the key measures for the prevention of catheter-related infections. Various substances with bactericidal and anticoagulant properties are used to fill catheters, but due to the unsatisfactory clinical effects and occurrence of adverse reactions, the search for new substances is still ongoing. In the present paper, we compared the in vitro antimicrobial activity of solutions used for tunnelled catheter locking (taurolidine, trisodium citrate) and solutions of substances that could potentially be used for this purpose (sodium bicarbonate, polyhexanide-betaine). The studies have been conducted on bacteria that most commonly cause catheter-related infections. The values of both minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration of the substances were determined. The ability of the tested substances to eradicate biofilm from the dialysis catheter surface was also evaluated. The results showed that polyhexanide-betaine inhibited the growth of all microbes comparably to taurolidine, even after ≥ 32-fold dilution. The activity of trisodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate was significantly lower. Polyhexanide exhibited the highest activity in the eradication of bacterial biofilm on polystyrene plates. The biofilm formed on a polyurethane dialysis catheter was resistant to complete eradication by the test substances. Polyhexanide-betaine and taurolidine showed the highest activity. Inhibition of bacterial growth regardless of species was observed not only at the highest concentration of these compounds but also after dilution 32-128x (taurolidine) and 32-1024x (polyhexanide-betaine). Therefore, it can be assumed that taurolidine application as a locking solution prevents catheter colonization and systemic infection development. Taurolidine displays high antimicrobial efficacy against Gram-positive cocci as well as Gram-negative bacilli. On the contrary, the lowest antibacterial effect displayed product contained sodium bicarbonate. The inhibitions of bacterial growth were not satisfactory to consider it as a substance for colonization prevention. Polyhexanidine-betaine possessed potent inhibitory and biofilm eradication properties comparing to all tested products. PHMB is applied as a wound irrigation solution worldwide. However, based on our results, we assume that the PHMB is a promising substance for catheter locking solutions thanks to its safety and high antimicrobial properties.
Piątkowska E, Paleczny J, Dydak K, Letachowicz K. Antimicrobial activity of hemodialysis catheter lock solutions in relation to other compounds with antiseptic properties. PLoS One. 2021 Oct 7;16(10):e0258148. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258148. PMID: 34618850.