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"Therefore, in this study, we focused on noncytotoxic electrolyte solutions and infusions and evaluated skin injuries during leakage using extravasation model rats" Taogoshi et al (2022).
Extravasation caused by noncytotoxic electrolyte solutions

Abstract:

Cytotoxic agents are classified according to the severity of skin injury after extravasation. However, injuries caused by extravasation of noncytotoxic agents have not been sufficiently investigated, although the risk of extravasation is mentioned in medical safety information published by the Japan Council for Quality Health Care. Therefore, in this study, we focused on noncytotoxic electrolyte solutions and infusions and evaluated skin injuries during leakage using extravasation model rats. Rats were anesthetized and intradermally injected with 100 µL of an electrolyte solution or infusion. Injection lesions were macroscopically and histopathologically evaluated for extravasation injuries. Each electrolyte solution and infusion were classified into three categories (vesicants, irritants, and non-tissue-damaging agents) depending on the degree of skin injury. Similar to saline, 0.3% potassium chloride and 0.6% magnesium sulfate showed almost no injury, and 3% sodium chloride and BFLUID® caused erythema and induration. Erythema, induration, and ulceration were observed with the following: 10% sodium chloride, 2% calcium chloride, 8.5% calcium gluconate, 12.3% magnesium sulfate, MAGSENT®, FESIN®, and Intralipos®. The duration of damage with these agents was markedly prolonged. Electrolyte solutions and infusions can be classified into vesicants (10% sodium chloride, 2% calcium chloride, 8.5% calcium gluconate, 12.3% magnesium sulfate, MAGSENT®, FESIN®, and Intralipos®), irritants (3% sodium chloride and BFLUID®), and non-tissue-damaging agents (0.3% potassium chloride and 0.6% magnesium sulfate) according to their composition. The characteristic symptoms and severity of each drug extravasation revealed in this study will provide basic information for preparation of guidelines for treatment of extravasation.

Reference:

Taogoshi T, Shibata Y, Uno H, Yokooji T, Tanaka M, Hide M, Matsuo H. Classification of Skin Injury Risk Caused by Extravasation of Electrolyte Solutions or Infusions in a Rat Model. Biol Pharm Bull. 2022;45(9):1254-1258. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b22-00170. PMID: 36047193.