Extravasation management guidelines
Background: The majority of hospitalized patients receive a Peripheral Venous Catheter (PVC) in the course of their treatment. Extravasation injury is a serious complication of intravenous treatment.
Objective: This cross-sectional survey designed study aims to investigate nurses’ knowledge and experience related to short peripheral venous catheter extravasation.
Method: The study sample included 145 nurses working in a university hospital in the west of Turkey. A questionnaire developed in accordance with the literature was used for data collection. The data were assessed by frequency and proportions.
Results: Of the nurses included in this study, 26.2% reported they had experienced extravasation injury in a patient; 74.5% said they had received no instruction in the management of extravasation during their in-service training program; and 85.5% stated they did not keep a record of extravasation. 89.7% of the nurses reported infused medications as a cause of extravasation, and 81.4% reported catheter sites as a cause. Among the medications reported by the nurses as causing extravasation: 89.7% reported contrast agents; 84.8% TPN solutions; 71.0% cytotoxic agents; and 65.1% mannitol. The symptoms of extravasation reported by nurses included: swelling (97.9%), redness (97.2%), pain (92.4%), rise in temperature (65.5%), and ulceration (60.0%). In responding to the occurrence of extravasation, interventions reported by the nurses included: stopping the flow of fluid (98.6%), elevation (89.7%), cold application (76.6%), and aspiration of drug (40.7%).
Conclusion: Based on these results, it is recommended that guidelines are developed for the management of extravasation, that periodic in-service training programs are provided and that observational studies are carried out into the administration of vesicant drugs.
Atay S, Üzen Cura Ş, Efil S. Nurses’ knowledge and experience related to short peripheral venous catheter extravasation. J Vasc Access. 2021 Sep 30:11297298211045589. doi: 10.1177/11297298211045589. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34590526.