Early mortality attributable to PICC-lines

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We report in our study an exhaustive inventory of bacteremia on PICC-line and their 30 days mortality, over a 7 years period” Bessis et al (2020).

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC-line) are devices inserted through peripheral venous access. In our institution, this technology has been rapidly adopted by physicians in their routine practice. Bacteremia on catheters remains an important public health issue in France. However, the mortality attributable to bacteremia on PICC-line remains poorly evaluated in France and in the literature in general. We report in our study an exhaustive inventory of bacteremia on PICC-line and their 30 days mortality, over a 7 years period.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, we retrospectively matched PICC-line registers of the radiology department, blood culture records of the microbiology laboratory and medical records from the Hospital Information Systems.

RESULTS: The 11,334 hospital stays during which a PICC-line was inserted were included over a period of 7 years. Among them, 258 episodes of PICC-line-associated bacteremia were recorded, resulting in a prevalence of 2.27%. Hematology units: 20/324 (6.17%), oncology units: 55/1375 (4%) and hepato-gastro-enterology units: 42/1142 (3.66%) had the highest prevalence of PICC-line related bacteremia. The correlation analysis, when adjusted by exposure and year, shows that the unit profile explains 72% of the variability in the rate of bacteremia with a P = .023. Early bacteremia, occurring within 21 days of insertion, represented 75% of cases. The crude death ratio at 30 days, among patients PICC-line associated bacteremia was 57/11 334 (0.50%). The overall 30-day mortality of patients with PICC-line with and without bacteremia was 1369/11334 (12.07%). On day 30, mortality of patients with bacteremia associated PICC-line was 57/258 or 22.09% of cases, compared to a mortality rate of 1311/11076, or 11.83% in the control group (P < .05, RR 2.066 [1.54-2.75]). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a statistically significant excess mortality between patients with PICC-line associated bacteremia and PICC-line carriers without bacteremia (P < .0007, hazard ratio 1.89 [1307-2709]). CONCLUSION: Patients with PICC-line associated bacteremia have a significant excess mortality. The implementation of a PICC-line should remain the last resort after a careful assessment of the benefit/risk ratio by a senior doctor.

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Reference:

Bessis, S., Cassir, N., Meddeb, L., Remacle, A.B., Soussan, J., Vidal, V., Fournier, P.E., Fenollar, F., Raoult, D. and Brouqui, P. (2020) Early mortality attributable to PICC-lines in 4 public hospitals of Marseille from 2010 to 2016 (Revised V3). Medicine. 99(1), p.e18494. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018494.

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