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"Sensors of millimeter size were printed in an array and were used for multiple detection points in a large area to detect extravasation at small volumes (<0.5 mL) at accurate bump location" Lu and Liao (2021).
Early extravasation detection

Abstract:

In this study, we presented a wearable sensor patch for the early detection of extravasation by using a simple, direct printing process. Silver nanowire (AgNW) ink was first formulated to provide necessary rheological properties to print patterns on flexible plastic sheets. By adjusting printing parameters, alignments of AgNWs in the printed patterns were controlled to enhance the resistance change under stretching conditions. A resistive strain-sensing device was then fabricated by printing patterned electrodes on a stretchable film for skin attachment. The designed sensor pattern was able to detect forces from a specific direction from the resistance change. Moreover, the sensor showed excellent sensitivity (gauge factor (GF) = 100 at 50% strain) and could be printed in small dimensions. Sensors of millimeter size were printed in an array and were used for multiple detection points in a large area to detect extravasation at small volumes (<0.5 mL) at accurate bump location.

Reference:

Lu HC, Liao YC. Direct Printed Silver Nanowire Strain Sensor for Early Extravasation Detection. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Sep 30;11(10):2583. doi: 10.3390/nano11102583. PMID: 34685021; PMCID: PMC8540525.