Background and objectives: Pain during cannulation for vascular access is a considerable problem for patients with kidney disease who are undergoing hemodialysis. We examined whether listening to music can reduce cannulation pain in these patients.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a multicenter, single-blind, crossover, randomized trial of 121 patients who reported pain during cannulation for hemodialysis. We compared participants listening to “Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, K.448” or white noise as control while undergoing the cannulation procedure. The cannulation operator was blinded to the intervention, and the hypothesized superiority of music over white noise was concealed during explanations to the participants. The primary end point was the visual analog scale score for cannulation pain independently evaluated by participants.
Results: The primary analysis was on the basis of the modified intention-to-treat principle. The median baseline visual analog scale pain score was 24.7 mm (interquartile range, 16.5-42.3). Median change of the visual analog scale pain score from the “no sound” to the music period was -2.7 mm (interquartile range, -9.2 to 3.6), whereas it was -0.3 mm (interquartile range, -5.8 to 4.5) from “no sound” to white noise. The visual analog scale pain score decreased when listening to music compared with white noise. (Adjusted difference of visual analog scale pain score: -12%; 95% confidence interval, -21 to -2; P=0.02.) There were no significant differences in the secondary outcomes of anxiety, BP, or stress assessed by salivary amylase (adjusted difference of visual analog scale anxiety score -8%, 95% confidence interval, -18 to 4; P=0.17). No intervention-related adverse events were reported.
Conclusions: Listening to music reduced cannulation pain in patients on hemodialysis, although there was no significant effect on anxiety, BP, or stress markers.Reference:
Inayama E, Yamada Y, Kishida M, Kitamura M, Nishino T, Ota K, Takahashi K, Shintani A, Ikenoue T. Effect of Music in Reducing Pain during Hemodialysis Access Cannulation: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2022 Aug 24:CJN.00360122. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00360122. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36002178.