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"For children with congenital heart disease requiring central venous catheterization during the perioperative period, the subclavian vein is a feasible site for catheterization. The supraclavicular approach, especially the left side, has a higher first-puncture success rate, shorter access time, lower complications, and a trend of lower incidence of catheter malposition" Gong et al (2024).

Subclavian vein cannulation in children with congenital heart disease

Abstract:

Objectives: Central venous catheterization is used widely in critical pediatric patients. The authors sought to compare the success rate and safety of ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation performed via infraclavicular and supraclavicular approaches.

Design: The authors compared the success rate of the first puncture and other information for cannulation in the children with congenital heart disease requiring central venous catheterization who were assigned randomly to the supraclavicular approach group (group A) or infraclavicular approach group (group B).

Setting: Medical university hospital pediatric cardiac intensive care units.

Participants: Pediatric patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease in the preoperative period who were admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit and required subclavian vein catheterization.

Interventions: Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation.

Measurements and main results: Sixty-seven children were included in the study, with 32 in group A and 35 in group B. Notably, there was a significant difference in the success rate of the first puncture between groups A and B (90.6% v 71.4, %, p = 0.047). Furthermore, the access time in group A was 11.8 seconds (3.2-95), which was significantly shorter than that in group B (16.0 [6.5-227] seconds, p = 0.001). In addition, the catheter malposition rate in group A was significantly lower than that in group B (0% v 11.4%, p = 0.049). Conversely, there were no significant differences in the total access time, overall success rate, and complications (eg, pneumothorax, hemorrhage, puncture artery, and nerve injury) between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: For children with congenital heart disease requiring central venous catheterization during the perioperative period, the subclavian vein is a feasible site for catheterization. The supraclavicular approach, especially the left side, has a higher first-puncture success rate, shorter access time, lower complications, and a trend of lower incidence of catheter malposition. However, a larger sample size of a randomized controlled study is expected to verify the advantages of ultrasound-guided subclavian catheterization in children.


Reference:

Gong X, Aikemu N, Xu Z, Zhu L. Comparison of the Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular and Infraclavicular Approaches for Subclavian Vein Cannulation in Children With Congenital Heart Disease. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2024 Mar 24:S1053-0770(24)00215-5. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2024.03.026. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38644099.