CVC tip navigation and tip location system
Introduction: According to current guidelines, tip location of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) should be verified during insertion, preferably using non-invasive methods such as intracavitary ECG (IC-ECG) or echocardiography. An interesting new option is represented by a new pressure-based device, the CatFinder System (CFS), which might be theoretically useful also for tip navigation.
Methods: We planned a single-center, prospective, non-randomized trial on adult patients requiring PICC insertion, using simultaneously CFS and IC-ECG, with the purpose of verifying the applicability, feasibility, safety, and accuracy of CFS for intra-procedural tip location. Patients with known ECG abnormalities or cardiac diseases of any type were excluded. The ability of CFS to assess wrong directions of the catheter during insertion (tip navigation) was evaluated by comparison with ultrasound scan.
Results: Out of 136 enrolled adult patients, CFS was found to be applicable in 131 cases (five cases were excluded because of ECG abnormalities) and feasible in 111 cases (in 20 cases, tip location by CFS could not be carried out because of technical issues). There were no complications directly or indirectly related to the CFS maneuvers. Using IC-ECG as a comparison, 87 tips placed by CFS were within 2 cm from the target, 17 were >2 cm from target. In seven cases, CFS was able to detect a wrong direction (to the ipsilateral internal jugular vein), as confirmed by ultrasound.
Conclusion: Applicability of CFS in patients with sinus rhythm was 96.3%, feasibility was 84.7%, and safety was 100%. If compared to IC-ECG, accuracy was 83.6% (accepting an error <2 cm) and 96.1% (for an error <3 cm). Unacceptable tip positions (>3 cm) were 3.8% (the tip was too high inside the SVC). This study confirms a possible future role of CFS for intra-procedural tip location and tip navigation, though its use cannot be currently recommended.
D’Arrigo S, Emoli A, Marche B, Pittiruti M. A new pressure-based device for tip navigation and tip location during central venous catheterization: A prospective clinical study on a cohort of 136 adult patients. J Vasc Access. 2022 Sep 16:11297298221122092. doi: 10.1177/11297298221122092. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36114632.