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"Among children undergoing cardiac surgery, there is no significant difference between the supraclavicular approach to the left brachiocephalic vein and the right internal jugular vein regarding complications" Falay et al (2022).
Analysis of central venous catheter complications

Abstract:

Aims: Central venous catheters are essential for the management of pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Recently, an ultrasound-guided access via a supraclavicular approach to the brachiocephalic vein has been described. Central venous catheters are associated with a relevant number of complications in pediatric patients. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of complications of left brachiocephalic vein access compared with right internal jugular vein standard access in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all pediatric cases at our tertiary care university hospital over a two-year period receiving central venous catheters for cardiac surgery.

Primary endpoint: Frequency of complications associated with central venous catheters inserted via the left brachiocephalic vein vs. right internal jugular vein. Complications were defined as: chylothorax, deep vein thrombosis, sepsis, or delayed chest closure. Secondary endpoints: Evaluation of the insertion depth of the catheter using a height-based formula without adjustment for side used.

Results: Initially, 504 placed catheters were identified. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 480 placed catheters remained for final analysis. Overall complications were reported in 68/480 (14.2%) cases. There was no difference in the frequency of all complications in the left brachiocephalic vein vs. the right internal jugular vein group (15.49% vs. 13.65%; OR = 1.16 [0.64; 2.07]), nor was there any difference considering the most relevant complications chylothorax (7.7% vs. 8.6%; OR = 0.89 [0.39; 1.91]) and thrombosis (5.6% vs. 4.5%; OR = 1.28 [0.46; 3.31]). The mean deviation from the optimal insertion depth was left brachiocephalic vein vs. right internal jugular vein 5.38±13.6mm and 4.94±15.1mm, respectively.

Conclusions: Among children undergoing cardiac surgery, there is no significant difference between the supraclavicular approach to the left brachiocephalic vein and the right internal jugular vein regarding complications. For both approaches, a universal formula can be used to determine the correct insertion depth.

Reference:

Falay D, Schindler E, Mikus M, Asfour B, Schroth S, Schenk A, Baehner T. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular cannulation of left brachiocephalic versus right internal jugular vein: Comparative analysis of central venous catheter-associated complications. Paediatr Anaesth. 2022 Nov 9. doi: 10.1111/pan.14600. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36350095.