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"Ultrasound findings are useful for diagnosing CRBSI. However, the sensitivity of sonographic findings is low and abnormal sonographic findings are sometimes absent in children with CRBSI; therefore, physicians should not rule out CRBSI based on normal sonographic findings, especially in patients a CVC and a positive blood culture" Hosokawa et al (2023).

Ultrasonographic findings of CRBSI

Abstract:

Background: Catheter removal is essential for treating catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI); however, clinicians are sometimes hesitant to remove catheters in pediatric patients due to the difficulty of securing vascular access. Confirming the diagnosis of CRBSI is important to justify catheter removal. The purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic findings of CRBSI.

Materials and methods: We included patients with a central venous catheter (CVC) or peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) who had a positive blood culture and underwent ultrasound. The patients were classified as with or without CRBSI. Sonographic findings, such as the presence/absence of thrombus, venous wall thickening, hyperechogenicity, and fluid collection around the vein were compared using Fisher’s exact test.

Results: Of the 58 patients, 38 (66%) were diagnosed with CRBSI. The presence of thrombus (19/38 vs 3/20, P = .011); and hyperechogenicity around the vein (14/38 vs 2/20, P = .035) differed significantly, but There was no significant difference in the presence of venous wall thickening (10/38 vs 1/20, P = .077), and fluid collection around the vein (5/38 vs 0/20, P = .153), did not differ significantly in patients with and without CRBSI, respectively. One-third of patients with CRBSI, including 11 (42.3%) patients with CVC, and 2 (16.7%) patients with PICC, did not have abnormal sonographic findings.

Conclusion: Ultrasound findings are useful for diagnosing CRBSI. However, the sensitivity of sonographic findings is low and abnormal sonographic findings are sometimes absent in children with CRBSI; therefore, physicians should not rule out CRBSI based on normal sonographic findings, especially in patients a CVC and a positive blood culture.


Reference:

Hosokawa T, Deguchi K, Takei H, Sato Y, Tanami Y, Oguma E. Ultrasonographic Findings of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Patients. J Ultrasound Med. 2023 Nov 2. doi: 10.1002/jum.16365. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37916425.