CLABSI rates in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition
Study objective: To compare rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) in pediatric patients who received parenteral nutrition (PN) with either soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsion (SO-IFE) or mixed oil IFE (MO-IFE). We hypothesized that the use of MO-IFE would be independently associated with reduced infection rates compared to SO-IFE.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Tertiary referral children’s hospital and its associated gastrointestinal rehabilitation clinic (01/01/2015 – 07/31/2019).
Patients: Days of IFE exposure were counted for patients aged < 18 years on IFE initiated during the review period, who had a central venous catheter (CVC) placed for PN administration, received IFE at least three times weekly, and for at least 7 days.
Measurements: The primary outcome included total and categorical CR-BSI rates expressed as the average with standard error (SE) number of infections per 1000 fat emulsion days. The following categories were specified: Candida albicans, non-albicans Candida spp., coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), Enterobacterales, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and Pseudomonadales. Average infection rate comparisons were quantified as incidence rate ratios (IRR) using generalized linear mixed modeling with a Poisson distribution.
Main results: 743 SO-IFE and 450 MO-IFE exposures were reviewed from 1131 patients, totaling 37,599 and 19,796 days of therapy, respectively. From those found significantly different, the average rate of infections with CoNS was 3.58 (SE 0.5)/1000 days of SO-IFE and 1.39 (SE 0.45)/1000 days of MO-IFE (IRR [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.27 [0.16-0.46]; p < 0.01). Total average rates of infection were 7.33 (SE 0.76)/1000 days of SO-IFE and 4.52 (SE 0.75)/1000 days of MO-IFE (IRR [95% CI]: 0.60 [0.44-0.81]; p < 0.01). Other factors associated with higher infection rates include female gender, neonatal age, and inpatient-only IFE exposure.
Conclusion: Receipt of MO-IFE was associated with lower rates of CoNS and total CR-BSIs compared to SO-IFE in pediatric patients. These findings could have major implications on IFE selection for pediatric patients receiving PN.
Alvira-Arill GR, Herrera OR, Tsang CCS, Wang J, Peters BM, Stultz JS. Comparison of catheter-related bloodstream infection rates in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition with soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsion versus a mixed oil fat emulsion. Pharmacotherapy. 2022 Nov 9. doi: 10.1002/phar.2740. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36349792.