Background: Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is a clinically relevant black yeast. Although E. dermatitidis rarely causes human infection, it can cause superficial and deep-seated infections, and cutaneous and subcutaneous diseases. Cases of fungemia and central line-associated bloodstream infections due to E. dermatitidis are extremely uncommon, and their clinical manifestations and prognosis are still not well-known. Herein, we report a case of central line-associated bloodstream infections in a patient with cancer. These infections were caused by melanized yeast that was finally identified as E. dermatitidis via internal transcribed spacer sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Case presentation: A 75-year-old man with thoracic esophageal cancer and early gastric cancer presented with a 1-day history of fever during his hospitalization at our hospital. A central venous port was placed in the patient for total parenteral nutrition. Two E. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from two blood samples drawn at different times from a peripheral vein and this central venous port. The isolate was identified as E. dermatitidis by internal transcribed spacer sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The central venous port was removed, and the patient was administered micafungin and voriconazole. Although the minimum inhibitory concentrations of E. dermatitidis for voriconazole and minimum effective concentrations for micafungin were 2 μg/mL and 4 μg/m, respectively, the bacteremia was successfully treated.
Conclusions: Although no clear treatment guidelines have been proposed for E. dermatitidis infections, immediate removal of central venous catheters is the key to improving central line-associated bloodstream infections.
Itoh N, Murakami H, Ishibana Y, Matsubara Y, Yaguchi T, Kamei K. Challenges in the diagnosis and management of central line-associated blood stream infection due to Exophiala dermatitidis in an adult cancer patient. J Infect Chemother. 2021 Apr 19:S1341-321X(21)00116-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2021.04.009. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33888421.