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Central venous catheters misplaced in paraspinal veins

"Lateral X-ray radiography is an effective method to verify misplacement and is recommended as routine practice during catheterization via lower extremities" Zhang et al (2020).

Abstract:

Background: Paraspinal vein misplacement is an uncommon complication of central venous catheterization via lower extremities, most of which have been reported in case reports.

Aims and objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of paraspinal vein misplacement.

Design: This was a systematic review.

Methods: A systematic literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was performed from their inception to 18 June 2019. Case reports and small case series describing central venous catheter misplacement in the paraspinal vein were included. Data on the catheterization procedure, catheter tip position, complications, and radiographic features of misplacement were extracted.

Results: Thirty studies with a total of 36 patients were included. The ascending lumbar vein accounted for the majority of misplacements (n = 30), followed by the lumbar vein (n = 4), iliolumbar vein (n = 1), and vertebral venous plexus (n = 1). Six patients had eventful catheterization procedures. Twenty-six patients experienced misplacement-induced complications, of whom seven died. The most common complications included cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, neurological symptoms, and deteriorated respiration. Among the entire case cohort, the onset of complications was the primary sign that alerted medical staff to misplacement (n = 23). The typical radiographic characteristics were posterior deviation of the catheter course overlapping with the spine on lateral X-rays and a bend, kink, or hump in the catheter course on anteroposterior X-rays at the L4 to L5 levels.

Conclusions: Nurses should be aware of this particular complication if a patient who has undergone catheterization via a lower extremity presents deterioration of neurological function and respiration.

Relevance to clinical practice: Lateral X-ray radiography is an effective method to verify misplacement and is recommended as routine practice during catheterization via lower extremities.

Reference:

Zhang X, Chen H, Feng L, et al. Central venous catheters misplaced in paraspinal veins: A systematic literature review based on case reports . Nurs Crit Care. 2020;10.1111/nicc.12539. doi:10.1111/nicc.12539