Vascular Access Conversation - IVUPDATE Podcast from IVTEAM

"Distinguishing between MDR-positive BCs representing clinically significant bacteremia or simple contamination requires a careful clinical, biological, and microbiological confrontation of each MDR positive BC in order to avoid unnecessary overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics and thus reduce resistance selective pressure" Nachate et al (2022).
Blood culture results – is it bacteremia or contamination

Abstract:

Purpose: To demonstrate the relevance of clinico-biological correlation in the interpretation of positive blood cultures (BC) for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, among adult and pediatric patients, in order to distinguish between true bacteremia (TB) and contaminations and to evaluate the impact on patient management.

Patients and methods: This six-month study was conducted at Mohammed VI University Hospital in Marrakech. All MDR bacteria isolated from BCs carried out on hospitalized patients during this period were included. For each positive BC to MDR microorganism, demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, therapeutic and evolution data were collected.

Results: TB was considered in 157 (94.6%) of the 166 positive-culture episodes for MDR bacteria, while 9 (5.4%) were classified as false-positive. Contamination rate was 0.2% (9/3824). TB and contaminations occurred mainly in intensive care units (ICUs), with the neonatal ICU being the most concerned (p = 0.016). Clinical signs of sepsis were present in all TB patients, with a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.000). CRP values were higher in the TB group (p = 0.000). The most isolated true pathogens were ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (50%) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (33.3%). They also predominated in contaminated BCs. Isolation of the same microorganism from other sites was significantly associated with TB (p = 0.012). In contrast to the contaminations group, the difference in the clinical course of TB patients, according to whether or not they received appropriate probabilistic antibiotics, was statistically significant (p = 0.000). These patients had longer hospital stays and longer durations of antibiotic therapy. The overall mortality rate was 39.6%.

Conclusion: Distinguishing between MDR-positive BCs representing clinically significant bacteremia or simple contamination requires a careful clinical, biological, and microbiological confrontation of each MDR positive BC in order to avoid unnecessary overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics and thus reduce resistance selective pressure.

Reference:

Nachate S, Rouhi S, Ouassif H, Bennani H, Hachimi A, Mouaffak Y, Younous S, Bennaoui F, El Idrissi Slitine N, Maoulainine FMR, Lamrani Hanchi A, Soraa N. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Blood Culture Samples in a Moroccan Tertiary Hospital: True Bacteremia or Contamination? Infect Drug Resist. 2022 Sep 27;15:5691-5704. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S373065. PMID: 36193293; PMCID: PMC9526425.