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In this article we will discuss tests frequently used to assess renal function” Stewart and Pasha (2018).


The kidneys are vital organs in the management of fluid balance, waste product removal, electrolyte homeostasis, acid–base balance and endocrine function. Waste products removed by the kidney include urea, uric acid, creatinine and other foreign products with similar physiochemical properties. Urea and uric acid are by products of protein metabolism and creatinine is generated by the metabolism of creatine compounds from muscle. The kidney regulates fluid and electrolyte balance through controlling the composition and volume of urine. In the proximal convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle, 90% of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are reabsorbed. Acid–base balance is achieved by regulating the excretion of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate buffering. The kidney also has a number of endocrine functions including the production of renin and erythropoietin as well as hydroxylation of vitamin D. The kidneys receive 25% of cardiac output, generating 170–200 litres of ultrafiltrate per day. Urine output is approximately 1.5 litres per day, which is concentrated ultrafiltrate through selective reabsorption of solutes and water. In this article we will discuss tests frequently used to assess renal function.


Stewart, C.L.M. and Pasha, T. (2018). Laboratory tests of renal function. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. March 29th. .