Amphotericin-associated infusion-related reactions
Purpose: Amphotericin B has been reported to cause infusion-related adverse effects (IRAEs). To prevent IRAEs, pre-medications may be administered prior to the administration of amphotericin B. The effects of different formulations of amphotericin B (amphotericin B deoxycholate and lipid formulations), duration of infusion, and utility of pre-medications in preventing IRAEs are reviewed.
Methods: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Scopus databases were searched with the following search terms: pre-medication, amphotericin B, and its related compounds. Upon review, a total of 39 publications were considered for inclusion.
Findings: In vitro and in vivo studies have reported that amphotericin B deoxycholate stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine genes causing IRAEs. Nonetheless, the clinical literature has reported that IRAEs occur among patients who received pre-medications. In comparison to amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid-based formulations of amphotericin may result in a lower or similar risk for IRAEs.
Implications: The routine use of pre-medications to prevent IRAEs after the administration of amphotericin B (amphotericin B deoxycholate or lipid formulations) would not be warranted.
Scardina T, Fawcett AJ, Patel SJ. Amphotericin-Associated Infusion-Related Reactions: A Narrative Review of Pre-Medications. Clin Ther. 2021 Oct 22:S0149-2918(21)00384-2. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.09.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34696915.