Using distraction to prevent venipuncture pain
Objective: Distraction can reduce pain and distress associated with painful procedures but has never been studied in children with solid organ transplants. We aimed to determine whether there is a difference in pain and distress associated with venipuncture in pediatric posttransplant patients who receive distraction compared with those who do not.
Methods: Randomized controlled trial of children aged 4 to 17 years with solid organ transplants undergoing venipuncture in the outpatient setting. Patients were randomized to receive distraction or no distraction. The primary outcome was the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. Secondary outcomes were the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised; Faces, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability; and Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Exploratory outcomes included the number of venipuncture attempts, time to successful venipuncture, and satisfaction of phlebotomists and parents.
Results: Median age of the 40 children enrolled was 11.5 years. Type of transplants included the heart (67.5%), kidney (22.5%), liver (7.5%), and more than 1 organ (2.5%). There was no difference between the Faces Pain Scale-Revised scores in distraction and no distraction groups (1.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.9; and 1.3, 95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.1, respectively). There was also no difference in the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised; Faces, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability; and Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores, number of venipuncture attempts, or time to successful venipuncture. Phlebotomists were more satisfied with the venipuncture when distraction was implemented.
Conclusions: In children with solid organ transplants, there was no difference in pain and distress associated with venipuncture between those who did and did not receive distraction. There was also no difference in other procedure-related outcomes except for greater phlebotomist satisfaction when distraction was implemented.
Grabinski ZG, Boscamp NS, Zuckerman WA, Zviti R, O’Brien A, Martinez M, Tsze DS. Efficacy of Distraction for Reducing Pain and Distress Associated With Venipuncture in the Pediatric Posttransplant Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 May 18. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002458. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34034337.