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"The present case report is of a 32-week- and 4-day-old female fetus who was born at Mahzad Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital" Goli et al (2021).

PICC pneumothorax

Abstract:

Introduction and importance: The Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) placement is associated with complications such as deep vein thrombosis, phlebitis, air embolism, infection, and superior vena cava syndrome. The aim of this study is to report pneumothorax as a rare complication of PICC insertion in a newborn.

Case presentation: The present case report is of a 32-week- and 4-day-old female fetus who was born at Mahzad Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Urmia, Iran. A PICC was placed for the infant. The infant underwent an antero-posterior chest X-ray, in which the presence of a complete white-out of the right hemithorax indicated pneumothorax and right lung collapse. The review of literature in this field showed that there were no reports of pneumothorax as a complication of PICC insertion in neonates.

Clinical discussion: Despite that the PICC placement seems to have many medical advantages in infants, it may cause life-threatening complications such as pneumothorax. In this newborn, the PICC placement was the main cause of pneumothorax and it can be stated that the catheter tip might cause trauma to the chest wall during the placement procedure which resulted in an air trap in the pleural cavity and eventually right lung collapse.

Conclusion: There are a couple of rare cases being reported to have complications of PICC placement in neonates, but none had associated pneumothorax and PICC placement in neonates. Therefore, innovative methods require to be used for meeting the nutrition and fluid requirements of the infants for a long time.


Reference:

Goli R, Zafarmokhtarian S, Ghalandari M, Babakeshi-Sheytanabad N, Rostami S, Farajollahi H. Pneumothorax as a rare complication of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in neonates: A case report study. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2021 Oct 7;88:106472. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106472. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34637990.