Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-saving intervention for patients where oral or enteral nutrition (EN) cannot be achieved or is not acceptable. The essential components of PN are carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, trace elements, electrolytes and water. PN should be provided via a central line because of its hypertonicity. However, peripheral PN (with lower nutrient content and larger volume) can be administered via an appropriate non-central line. There are alternatives for the compounding process also, including hospital pharmacy compounded bags and commercial multichamber bags. PN is a costly therapy and has been associated with complications. Metabolic complications related to macro and micronutrient disturbances, such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and electrolyte imbalance, may occur at any time during PN therapy, as well as infectious complications, mostly related to venous access. Long-term complications, such as hepatobiliary and bone disease are associated with longer PN therapy and home-PN. To prevent and mitigate potential complications, the optimal monitoring and early management of imbalances is required. PN should be prescribed for malnourished patients or high-risk patients with malnutrition where the feasibility of full EN is in question. Several factors should be considered when providing PN, including timing of initiation, clinical status, and risk of complications.Reference:
Berlana D. Parenteral Nutrition Overview. Nutrients. 2022 Oct 25;14(21):4480. doi: 10.3390/nu14214480. PMID: 36364743; PMCID: PMC9659055.