Mortality of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19
Purpose: Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death. We aimed to describe the characteristics of a cohort of Brazilian hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 and assess their mortality rate and risk factors for death.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 741 Brazilian hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Feb-Dec/2020, of 52 dialysis centers of the country. We analyzed comorbid conditions, sociodemographic factors, and dialysis-related parameters. To detect risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients, we performed multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier.
Results: From 9877 hemodialysis patients, 741 were diagnosed with COVID-19. Mean age was 57 ± 16 years, 61% were male, and 51% white. The most frequent symptoms were fever (54.1%), cough (50.9%), and dyspnea (37.2%); 14.2% were asymptomatic. There were 139 deaths (18.8%), with 66% within the disease’s first 15 days. 333 patients (44.9%) required hospitalization, and 211 (28.5%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. The cumulative probability of survival at 90 days of diagnosis was 79% (95% CI 76-82%). In the fully adjusted multivariate model, the risk factors significantly associated with death were diabetes mellitus (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.19, P = 0.026), use of a central venous catheter (CVC) (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.64, P = 0.003), age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P < 0.001), and origin from the North vs. Southeast region (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.01-6.68, P = 0.047).
Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients using a CVC as the vascular access, aside from diabetic and elderly ones, should be closely monitored due to their high risk of death in the course of the COVID-19.
Lugon JR, Neves PDMM, Pio-Abreu A, do Nascimento MM, Sesso R; COVID-19 HD-Brazil Investigators. Evaluation of central venous catheter and other risk factors for mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 in Brazil. Int Urol Nephrol. 2021 Jun 16. doi: 10.1007/s11255-021-02920-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34132971.